5 FACTS ABOUT THE WLTP TEST PROCEDURE.
- 01 The new statutory WLTP consumption measurement has a more practical basis.
- 02 The tests take place over a longer period of time, at higher speeds and with a more dynamic progression.
- 03 The standard values of the new measuring procedure are closer to real-world figures for consumption.
- 04 The details offer a greater degree of transparency in terms of the anticipated fuel costs.
- 05 The WLTP measuring technique has been undergoing gradual implementation since 1 September 2017.
WLTP MEASURING TECHNIQUE.
Precise test procedure for obtaining the most realistic values possible for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
The WLTP measuring technique is based on globally compiled, real driving data, which will result in the values determined also being more realistic. Among the changes this involves are redefined, significantly more stringent test conditions and higher speeds, together with a substantially longer test duration (30 instead of 20 minutes).
To determine the CO2 emissions more precisely, both standard equipment options and special equipment options for a vehicle are included in the test procedure. This will produce two values for each type of vehicle: the lowest and highest possible standard consumption value according to the aerodynamics, weight and rolling resistance. Thanks to WLTP, you will be able to better assess a vehicle’s consumption and CO2 emissions. In the case of a specific vehicle configuration, the individual standard value will be indicated directly. In the case of a specific vehicle configuration, the individual standard value will be indicated directly. Even with this test procedure, deviations will still be possible in real-world operation. Regardless of this, everyday consumption and CO2 emissions continue to be subject to the different conditions of topography, climate and personal driving technique. Also exerting an influence are the traffic situation, the current load carried and the use of devices such as the air conditioning system. One thing is certain: the test conditions are more realistic than before, which means that higher fuel consumption and CO2 values as well as lower ranges for electric vehicles can be expected on paper. However, this does not have any adverse effect on the real fuel consumption or range. In addition, the BMW Group is always working on new technologies in order to improve consumption and range.
All vehicles of the BMW Group that can be ordered in the EU28+ countries are approved in accordance with the WLTP method.
In Germany, however, the legislator specifies that the values measured with WLTP will initially be communicated with a calculation referring them back to NEDC values. The EU Commission has developed a correlation technique for this purpose, which will be binding to an equal extent on all vehicle manufacturers.
This phase is intended to simplify the changeover. Its duration will depend on the respective national legislation and will thus vary from country to country.
From September 2018, all car manufacturers have been legally obliged to test in accordance with WLTP for all vehicles sold in the EU as well as in Switzerland, Turkey, Norway, Liechtenstein and Israel (EU28+).
As from January 2021, all countries which adopt the EU legislation for vehicle registration will have to issue and communicate WLTP values for all vehicles.
WLTP EXPLAINED ON VIDEO.
These films inform you about the most important facts for the WLTP measuring technique.
WLTP COMPARED WITH NEDC.
Learn more about the differences between the old and the new test procedure.
Time spent stationary
Urban, extra-urban, (combined)
Low, Medium, High, Extra-high, (Combined); (plus “City” for electric vehicles and vehicles with plug-in hybrid drivetrain)
Average: 34 km/h
Maximum: 120 km/h
Average: 46.6 km/h
Maximum: 131 km/h
20–30° C; Cold engine start
14° C (tested at 23° C corrected for 14° C) Cold engine start
Special equipment options
Not taken into consideration.
All equipment options are considered in terms of their influence on aerodynamics, weight and rolling resistance.
REAL DRIVING EMISSIONS (RDE).
Realistic measurement of pollutant emissions by a vehicle driven on the road.
Since mid May 2016, Real Driving Emissions (RDE) measurements have been compulsory for all vehicle manufacturers in the EU as well as in Switzerland, Turkey, Norway, Liechtenstein and Israel. In these RDE tests, the pollutant emissions, such as particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOx), are measured directly on the road. This method determines average emission values that can be expected during everyday driving.
In order to further reduce pollutant values in everyday use, the BMW Group is applying various technologies in its models for reducing exhaust emissions.
The BMW BluePerformance measures, for example, reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides in diesel engines. With the introduction of the new 6-cylinder engine generation for the diesel as from 2020, the storage catalytic converter located close to the engine is replaced by an even more efficient SCR system, also close to the engine. As a result, NOx conversion is further improved, especially during urban driving. A second SCR catalytic converter, located as before in the underbody, provides additional support, and, depending on the vehicle, has its own AdBlue dosing system.
The BMW Group was the first vehicle manufacturer to introduce the combination of NOx storage catalytic converter and SCR system into series production. By establishing double AdBlue dosing, BMW is again setting new standards in the purification of exhaust gases and pollutant reduction.
Furthermore, since 2006 diesel vehicles have been equipped with particle filters as standard in order to reduce particulate matter. In the petrol-engine models, too, special particle filters re now in operation across the range.
In this way, BMW is able to comply with the RDE threshold limit values of the EU6d exhaust emissions standard, which has been compulsory for all new vehicles since January 2020. In contrast to EU6c, the EU6d exhaust emissions standard now also defines threshold limit values for the number of particles and nitrogen oxides in RDE test runs.
EU6d approval guarantees that your vehicle complies with the currently strictest EU emission limit values.
ENGINES WITH BMW TWIN POWER TURBO TECHNOLOGY.
Powerful and efficient: the BMW petrol and diesel engines.
Innovative petrol and diesel engines with BMW TwinPower Turbo technology form the centrepiece of every BMW. They combine the latest injection systems, fully variable performance control and innovative turbocharger technology.
BMW TwinPower Turbo petrol engines.
The innovative three-cylinder petrol engine with its exceptional smoothness, the four-cylinder petrol engine and the BMW TwinPower Turbo straight six-cylinder petrol engine, multiple winner of the “Engine of the Year Award”, set standards. In its latest generation the BMW EfficientDynamics engine family proves to be more economical, lower on emissions and more powerful than its predecessors.
In order to increase efficiency and dynamics, this innovative package – a milestone in the BMW EfficientDynamics strategy – combines the latest injection technology and the Valvetronic fully variable valve control including double-VANOS with innovative turbocharger technology. The result is an especially efficient drive system that impressively illustrates the recognised engine expertise of BMW.
BMW TwinPower Turbo diesel engines.
Reflected in the BMW Twin Power Turbo diesel engines is the systematic implementation of the BMW EfficientDynamics principle: combining top values in economy, power yield and running characteristics with low fuel consumption. There is no doubt about their efficiency and dynamics. Yet at the same time, the BMW TwinPower Turbo three-cylinder diesel engines serving as ideal entry-level engines, the innovative BMW TwinPower Turbo four-cylinder diesel engines and the especially powerful BMW TwinPower Turbo straight six-cylinder diesel engines perform their work with remarkably few emissions and little friction. Maximum driving fun is therefore guaranteed. The diesel power units with the aluminium lightweight construction of the BMW EfficientDynamics engine family have turbocharging with variable turbine geometry. Fuel injection is the responsibility of the latest generation of common rail direct injection.
BMW DIESEL ENGINES: PROGRESSIVE, SUSTAINABLE AND EFFICIENT.
The diesel is not only an important economic motor, it is also an innovative and highly efficient drive system, which makes a sustainable contribution to meeting climate targets. Thanks to the innovative AdBlue injection technology, the nitrogen emissions of modern BMW diesel vehicles are tending towards zero. Additional exhaust gas purification procedures are additionally in use to further reduce pollutant emissions. Consequently, the diesel engine is both an efficient and sustainable drive system, particularly for drivers who regularly cover long distances. Within the BMW Group, all types of drive undergo further development and improvement in parallel.
THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT DIESEL.
Be it sustainability, cost-effectiveness or efficiency, there are many good reasons that support modern diesel engines. Yet there is often a lack of facts and background information. Form your own picture with the informative overview on the topic of the diesel drive and pollutant emissions featured here.
The diesel and the environment
The EU and many other countries around the world have undertaken to significantly reduce the greenhouse gas CO2. The diesel engine plays an important role in achieving this climate target: after all, diesel vehicles can present a good CO2 footprint on the basis of their lower consumption. A diesel that complies with the Euro 6 EU standard, for example, produces about 15% less CO2 than a comparable model with a petrol engine. Against this background, diesel cars in Europe have saved approximately 1,000,000,000 tonnes of CO2 in the last 20 years. And thanks to particle filters, which have been installed as standard at BMW since 2006, the proportion of diesel vehicles contributing to engine-related particulate emissions is practically no longer relevant.
Particulate matter and particle filters
Particulate matter is the term used for all the solids distributed in the air. Natural sources are erosion, fine dusts, volcanic eruptions and also pollen. In addition to road traffic, sources caused by humans include air and shipping traffic as well as industry. Roughly 20% of the particulate matter that occurs is due to cars, less from exhaust emissions than from tire abrasion and turbulence. Thanks to the particle filters that have been installed within the BMW Group since 2006, our vehicles have almost no more particulate emissions generated by the engines.
What exactly is CO2?
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that is generated, for example, by the combustion of coal, diesel, petrol natural gas and wood. It plays an important role in nature for the metabolism of many living organisms and plants. I In excess, CO2 makes an important contribution to the greenhouse effect and hence to climate change. Within the EU, traffic is responsible for just under 30% of the entire CO2 emissions, with road traffic accounting for 72%. Without the diesel, which emits less CO2 than a petrol engine due to its low consumption, CO2 values would be significantly higher.
What does NOx mean?
NOx is the collective name for nitrogen oxides, the gaseous oxides of nitrogen (N). Too high NOx concentrations put a strain on the lungs and can harm plants. Nitrogen oxides occur in the high-temperature combustion of fuels but also of coal, oil, wood and waste. Between 1990 and 2017, NOx emissions due to road traffic have decreased by more than 60%. As a result, the proportion of total NOx emissions due to road traffic in 2017 amounted to approx. 37.5%. BMW relies on a multi-stage procedure for reducing nitrogen oxides, which today is recognised as being extremely effective. Alongside emissions reduction in the engine and exhaust gas recycling, this particular includes exhaust gas after-treatment by a combination of NSC (Nitrogen Oxide Storage Catalytic Converter) and SCR system (Selective Catalytic Reduction). Interacting with the exhaust gas temperature and the AdBlue injection, the SCR system converts the toxic nitrogen oxides into the non-toxic components of water and nitrogen.
In the new 6-cylinder diesel engine from BMW, the previous very efficient exhaust gas after-treatment system consisting of a NOx storage catalytic converter, DPF (diesel particle filter) and underbody SCR is replaced by a system with an even higher functional potential. Here an SCR system (based on DPF) close to the engine works with an underbody SCR system in order to cover a very broad range of engine operations with optimal NOx conversion. This is also the basis for future exhaust gas standards.
EU exhaust emissions standard
The EU exhaust gas standard lays down the threshold limit values for emissions according to vehicle type and engine. Every year, new vehicles have to comply with more stringent exhaust gas regulations in order to obtain approval. Whether with diesel or petrol engine, all current new vehicles from the BMW Group comply with the Euro 6 exhaust gas standard. You will find the emissions class of your vehicle relevant for EU type approval in section V9 of the type approval certificate.
In order to meet EU emission limits in heavily polluted cities and to improve air quality in the long term, some European cities have environmental or low-emission zones with restrictions on traffic. According to the specific country, vehicles may only enter these zones under certain conditions, such as by displaying emissions stickers or complying with certain emission classes. Whether with diesel or petrol engine, the current new vehicles of the BMW Group comply with the Euro 6 emissions standard and are thus have approval for the majority of European environmental zones.
The emissions sticker supplies information on a vehicle’s EU emissions class. It is required in some European cities, such as Berlin for example, in order to drive into environmental zones with reduced emissions. At present, vehicles receive a red, yellow or green emissions sticker or no sticker at all according to the level of pollutants emitted. The current new vehicles from the BMW Group always comply with the Euro 6 emissions standard and thus receive the green emissions sticker on registration. This entitles you to drive your new BMW in most of the environmental zones in Europe.
FAQ – MEASURING METHODS FOR CONSUMPTION AND EMISSIONS.
Your questions. Our answers.
What is WLTP?
The abbreviation WLTP stands for “Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure”.
This involves a new test procedure for a more realistic determination of fuel consumption and CO2 emission values of vehicles that will be legally binding for all vehicles as of September 2018. WLTP will replace the previously applicable NEDC procedure.
What is the WLTP driving cycle?
A vehicle’s consumption and emissions depend on driving style among other factors. This is why driving data have been compiled for WLTP around the world. These data were used to define 4 representative phases with different average speeds: low, medium, high and extra-high. Within each of these phases, there are different intensities of acceleration, braking and stopping in order to depict situations with a relevance to everyday driving style. The combination of these phases then results in the driving cycle which is communicated as a combined value in the manufacturer’s details. As electric and hybrid vehicles are used particularly within urban areas, their driving cycle contains a 5th phase: the City phase. This results from the average speeds of low and medium.
What does WLTP mean for me?
Introduction of WLTP will mean that the fuel consumption and CO2 values indicated will approximate those in real-world operation. Irrespective of this, taking into account individual special equipment in WLTP will additionally lead to more realistic values as they are based on your personal vehicle configuration. At the same time, however, more realistic values will also mean higher consumption and CO2 standard values for vehicles with combustion engines and a lower range for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. Depending on national legislation, higher CO2 taxes may result.
What is RDE?
The abbreviation RDE stands for "Real Driving Emissions". This is a new procedure for determining pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter. The crucial feature is that measurement takes place on the road under realistic driving conditions and not in the laboratory. A device known as a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS for short) is attached to the exhaust of the test vehicle for this purpose.
What is EU6?
Euro 6 is the name of the current exhaust emission standard for pollutants. It defines lower maximum values for particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions than EU5. From September 2018*, the EU6c emission standard will become compulsory, and in comparison to EU6b it specifies even lower limits for the content of particulate matternumber in petrol-engine vehicles. The same threshold limit values apply for diesel-engine vehicles within the cycle for both EU6b and EU6c. EU6d-TEMP from September 2019* and EU6d from January 2021* will again slightly lower the threshold limit values for the number of particles and nitrogen oxides in line with RDE.
*Applies to new vehicles. New vehicle types will each be subject to the new exhaust emission standards 1 year earlier.
What does selective catalytic reduction (SCR) mean?
So that the exhaust emission values of a vehicle can be further reduced, liquid ammonia, called AdBlue®, is fed into diesel engines' exhaust system. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with AdBlue® reduces up to 90% of the nitrogen oxides. What remains is water vapour, nitrogen and CO2. What remains is water vapour, nitrogen and CO2.
What is BluePerformance?
BMW uses BluePerformance technology to reduce the nitrogen oxide emissions of its vehicles even further. Thanks to this technology it is possible to further optimise the emissions performance of the diesel drive. In addition to the diesel particle filter and NOx storage catalytic converter, all BMW 4-cylinder diesel engines have an SCR catalytic converter (Selective Catalytic Reduction) with AdBlue® injection to significantly reduce nitrogen oxides contained in the exhaust gases. With the introduction of the new 6-cylinder engine generation for the diesel as from 2020, the storage catalytic converter located close to the engine is replaced by an even more efficient SCR system, also close to the engine. As a result, NOx conversion is further improved, especially during urban driving. A second SCR catalytic converter, located as before in the underbody, provides additional support, and, depending on the vehicle, has its own AdBlue dosing system.
What is a particle filter?
The particle filter is a measure for reducing particulate matter present in diesel engines and petrol engines.
What does WLTP mean for electric and hybrid vehicles?
As electric and hybrid vehicles are used mainly in urban areas, WLTP provides, in addition to the four phases of low, medium, high and extra high, a separate 5th phase for them – namely the City Phase. This combines the speeds of the phases that best reflect the motoring situation in urban areas: low and medium. This enables more realistic indications of range to be given.